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Illustrations of military interest from

Histoire d'Outremer

par Guillaume de Tyr
[By William of Tyre - French translation with continuation until 1275]

Made at Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, late 13th century

Bibliothèque nationale de France, Manuscript: Français 9084

départ pour la première croisade
fol. 20v, starting for the first crusade

tancrède et envoyés ciliciens
fol. 42, Tancred and Cilician envoys

A Frankish infantryman in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291
by Ian Heath, based on Tancred and Cilician envoys in Histoire d'Outremer

massacre des habitants d'antioche (1098)
fol. 64v, massacre of the inhabitants of Antioch (1098)

A larger image of bataille d'antioche (1098)
fol. 53, battle of Antioch (1098)

bohémond 3 et raymond 3 à jérusalem
fol. 307v, Bohemond III and Raymond III at Jerusalem

siège de shaizar (1138)
fol. 182v, siege of Shaizar (1138)

Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS Français 9084

An Extract from Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350, Western Europe and the Crusader States by David Nicolle:
742A-F History of Outremer, Kingdom of Jerusalem 1286
(Bib. Nat., Ms. Fr. 9084, Paris, France)
A - Crusaders massacre Muslims of Antioch, f.64; B - Bohemond and Raymond before Jerusalem, f.307v; C - Crusaders besiege Shayzar, f.182v; D - Siege of Tyre; E - Siege of Antioch; F - Siege of Damietta.

In another manuscript made by the school of Acre, Crusaders are clearly and quite deliberately shown with round (C) or oval (B) shields. This seems to indicate that, far from the Muslims adopting some of the supposedly more advanced military technology of the West, the reverse might have been happening to a limited degree in response to specific military circumstances. The Crusader States were by now little more than a string of castle-bound garrisons. Ventures into open battle were rare and usually disastrous. Any local military fashions that distinguished the troops of the Crusader States from those of Western Europe are, therefore, likely to reflect purely defensive warfare of ambush and siege. One warrior has a brimmed chapel-de-fer war-hat (A) which is of almost exactly the same size and form as the supposed sun-hat in the previous manuscript. Muslims are accurately portrayed with turbans (D and E), maces (E), and small round shields (D and E). One archer has a hat or an iron war-hat with a square top (D), while others have pointed helmets, tall, short or with angled crowns (F), as well as mail and perhaps in one instance lamellar armour (F).

[e and f are probably from different manuscripts. e from Histoire d'Outremer par Guillaume de Tyr, Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1280, Lyon - Bibliothèque Municipale - Ms 828]

Other manuscripts of Histoire d'Outremer by Willam of Tyre
Histoire d'Outremer by Willam of Tyre, Northern France, British Library Ms. Yates Thompson 12, 1232-1261
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Saltykov-Shchredin Ms. Fr. fol.v.IV.5, St Petersburg, 1280
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Lyon - Bibliothèque Municipale - Ms 828, c1280AD
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, called the Lyon Eracles, Lyon - Bibliothèque de la Ville - Ms P.A. 29, 1280AD
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre - Boulogne-sur-mer BM - Ms 142, made c.1287
Histoire d'Outremer, Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1290-1, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana manuscript Plut.61.10
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre - Walters Art Museum Ms. W.137, from Picardy, 1295-1300

Other 13th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers