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The Admont Bible, Salzburg, 12th century
Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Wien. Cod. ser. nov. 2701
Images are +30 brightness.
Source: Admonti Biblia - képtár, National Széchényi Library
Some of the other folios of this bible are at the École Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris. PC 22788-2
Reference: The Admont Bible, National Széchényi Library
Referenced on p313, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350, Western Europe and the Crusader States by David Nicolle.
835 Gebhard Bible, Hungary or Germany, mid-12th century (Church of St Petrus, Csatar; after Gerevich)
A - Israelites; B-D - Philistines; E - King Saul; F-H - Israelites. The Gebhard Bible seems to reflect a small degree of Byzantine influence.
This is most apparent in the archaized armour of some Philistines (C and D), which seems to include splinted upper-arm defences.
These might be dismissed as fanciful were they not to appear again in a later and generally more reliable Hungarian manuscript (fig.888 [Hungarian National Chronicle, c.1360 (National Széchényi Library, Ms. Clmae 404, Budapest Hungary)]).
The Gebhard Bible otherwise shows standard European equipment of conical helmets with nasals (B, F and G), long-sleeved hauberk (A, B, E, G and H),
kite-shaped shields with or without large decorative bosses (B, D, E and H), straight, barely tapering swords with straight quillons (C, D, G and H),
and a couched lance with a gonfanon (A).
The only slightly unusual features are a number of helmets, both conical and round, which appear to be of two-piece construction joined along a comb with broad rim band (A, D and H).
Such helmets are, of course, also known elsewhere in 12th century Western Europe.
p347, You Shall Surely Not Die, The Concepts of Sin and Death as Expressed in ... Volume 2 By Jill Bradley
3.4 The Admont Bible, Vienna, Österreichische nationalbibliothek, Ms. Ser. n 2701
This manuscript is one of the giant bibles, and is sometimes known as the Gebhardsbibel.
It is dated about 1140 and comes from a Salzburg scriptorium;120 whether it was originally made for a Salzburg house is unknown.
Marginal additions in the form of hymns suggest that it was intended for a Cistercian foundation and that of Heiligenkreuzen has been suggested.121
In the late twelfth or early thirteenth century it was at the monastery of St. Peter in Csatár, Hungary.122
Despite the name, Gerhard's Bible, it is impossible that it was donated to Admont by its founder, Gebhard, the politician involved in the investiture contest.
Gebhard died about half a century before the making of the Bible.
Cahn is of the opinion that the Bible donated by Gebhard to Admont was an Italian giant Bible, whose format may have influenced the two early giant bibles from Salzburg, The Admont Bible and the slightly earlier Michaelbeuern, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Perg. 1.
120 Andreas Fingernagel, Die illuminierten latereinischen Handschriften süd-, west- und nordeu-ropäischer provenienz der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz; 4.-12. Jahrhundert; Teil 1. Text. Mit Nachträgen zu Bd. 1 (Wiesbaden, 1999).
121 Andreas Fingernagel, "The Admont Giant Bible," in In the Beginning was the Word. The power and glory of illuminated bibles, ed. A. Fingernagel and C. Gastgeber (Cologne, 2003).
122 Cahn, Die Bibel in der Romanik, p. 258.
Soldiers in Commentary on the Apocalypse by Haimo, Bishop of Auxerre, Germany, first half of the 12th century
Soldiers in Rolandslied, Song of Roland, Regensburg, Germany, late 12th-century
12th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
Illustrations of Hungarian Costume & Soldiers